CONSPIRACY. UCMJ ART. 81. Punishment
- Conspiracy to commit an offense is distinct and separate from the offense that is theobject of the conspiracy. The accused can be convicted and punished separately for both the conspiracy and the underlying offense. Also, commission of the intended offense may constitute the overt act required for conspiracy. MCM, pt. IV, ¶ 5c(8); Pinkerton v. United States , 328 U.S. 640 (1946); United States v. Dunbar , 12 M.J. 218 (C.M.A. 1982); United States v. Washington , 1 M.J. 473 (C.M.A. 1976); United States v. Nagle , 30 M.J. 1229 (A.C.M.R. 1990).
- Conspiracy to commit a crime and solicitation to commit the same crime are separate offenses. See United States v. Ramsey , 52 M.J. 322 (C.A.A.F. 2000); United States v. Carroll , 43 M.J. 487 (C.A.A.F. 1996).
- Conspiracy to commit a crime and attempted commission of the same crime areseparate offenses, because each offense requires proof of a separate element. United States v. Stottlemire, 28 M.J. 477 (C.M.A. 1989).
- Where the theft of two separate items was contemplated by the conspiracy, the value of the items can be aggregated to calculate the maximum punishment available for the conspiracy. United States v. Crawford , 31 M.J. 736 (A.F.C.M.R. 1990).